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My Definition of Rock and Roll

Peter Cross

"Rock and roll is sexual energy expressed in sound"

It all started with "Elvis the Pelvis". Why do you think all the girls started fainting all over this country when they heard Elvis` voice for the first time? It was because nobody had ever heard a man sing something like "All Shook Up" and it shook them to the core. Being sexy like that just came naturally for Elvis and the girls picked up on it immediately like some kind of sexual email was being sent directly into their brains! Other rock and roll stars followed in Elvis` steps very quickly. Jerry Lee Lewis knew what to do and he got himself into a great big ball of fire with his underage lover. Chuck Berry was another natural, and he also created some serious trouble simply because he was black and the white girls went for him big time. I think that may have been the first time that the pathetic and hung up white male population had to deal with the racial sex issue at this level.

Then The Beatles exploded. It was the Elvis phenomenon again except that all The Beatles really did was sing like gods, shake their mop top heads around and look adorable, and thousands of girls got wet panties at the very same time. The effect was enhanced

Mick Jagger was another natural, just like Elvis. Right from the beginning, "The Lips" knew how to give and get Satisfaction and he followed that up with a long series of balls to the wall hits with strong sexual messages like "Play with Fire, "Live With Me" and the all time classic musical expression of sex, "Going Home". Strangely enough, it wasn`t Mick who actually got all the girls into bed, it was Bill Wyman, the Stones` bass player. In his autobiographical book Bill told all, and his groupies totaled in the thousands. He never made it clear in his book exactly why that happened to him and not the same way to Mick who must have gotten and still be getting whoever he really wants to have. But it did happen and all Bill ever did was stand there completely still and play his bass guitar looking sort of sad and forlorn. There simply has to be a logical explanation for Bill`s success, and I think I know what it is. (Don`t ask, I won`t tell).

Not much needs to be said about that most powerful sexual dynamo, Jim Morrison, who told all the girls to "Come on Ba

And then came Jimi Hendrix. The pun is intended. Jimi had to have been the sexiest black musician of all time and few girls didn`t want to be his "Foxy Lady". They actually used to line up outside his dressing room backstage and Jimi would come out and choose one or more at a time. He was another one who simply couldn`t help himself, although he did understand exactly what he was doing and why. Later on in his career he stopped his sexy performance on purpose because he was a serious musician who wanted people to appreciate his playing and his songwriting for being as creative as it was. He felt that his sex show was getting in the way of that kind of appreciation so after the Experience broke up, he pretty much stood still playing with his eyes shut because he didn`t even want to see the girls out there anymore.

I believe the best example of sexual energy expressed in sound is Led Zeppelin. Whenever they played live Jimmy Page seemed to stagger around the stage as if he was drunk, but he wasn`t drunk. It was just that the hurricane of sexual force that blew out of his amp was too much for even Jimmy to withstand. Now I`m sure that most people are aware that rhythmically beating drums awaken the sexual forces. Africans were despised and envied

Brake systems

Motor , Sep 1999 by Layne, Ken

The International Automotive Technicians` Network (iATN) is an organization of about 23,000 professional technicians, worldwide. One of its principal functions is to provide mutual assistance and problem-solving advice for its members through Internet e-mail forums. One of the most popular topics-right up there with driveability and OBD II diagnosis-is brake problems. It may seem strange that technology as wellestablished as hydraulic brake systems could generate so many service headaches for technicians and shop owners, but it does. And often the solution to a nightmare problem is found in the application of basic brake principles. So let`s review "Brake Systems lA" with an eye toward gaining some troubleshooting insight.

Brake operation is not abstract theory but a great example of applied science. We can look at brake troubleshooting from two engineering viewpoints-conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy, and the application of hydraulic principles. Let`s start with stopping power and then move to the hydraulic applications. Energy Conversion

and Friction

The power to stop a vehicle comes from converting kinetic energy (motion) to thermal energy (heat). Kinetic and thermal energy are two sides of the same coin, which is heat transfer. The primary job of a brake system is to dissipate heat. In our rush to troubleshoot today`s sophisticated braking systems, however, we often jump past basic heat transfer to the high-tech realm of electronic controllers and computer programs. In reality, the major factor that determines good or poor braking performance is simple friction.

This is not going to be a review of a physics textbook; but if you understand the simple science at work in a brake system, you`ll find it easier to keep your eye on the goal of all brake service-to maintain the same coefficient of friction and braking force at all four wheels that has been designed into the vehicle.

Engineers measure friction by its coefficient, which is calculated by dividing the force required to slide an object over a surface by the weight of the object. For example, if it takes 100 pounds of force to slide a 100-pound block of iron over a concrete floor, the coefficient of friction between the two materials is 1.0. If it takes only 2 pounds of force to slide a 100-pound block of ice over the same floor, the coefficient is only .02.

Friction exists at two points for each wheel during braking-between pad or shoe linings and rotors or drums, and between the tires and the road. These are the areas you want to think about when troubleshooting a braking problem.

More Is Not Always Better

It`s not a simple proposition that the highest coefficient of friction will produce the greatest stopping power. In fact, the coefficient of friction between brake linings and rotors or drums is always less than 1.0. A coefficient of friction greater than 1.0 means that material actually is being transferred from one surface to another. Although brake friction surfaces wear, material is not transferred from pads to rotors or from shoe linings to drums. Additionally, excessive friction leads to brake grabbing and lockup, which, as you know, reduces braking effectiveness.

The coefficient of friction between a tire and the road can exceed 1.0, however. When this happens, material transfers from the tire to the road-a skid mark. That means that the coefficient of friction momentarily exceeded 1.0. These two examples illustrate that more friction does not always mean better braking. When the coefficient of friction equals or exceeds 1.0-either at the brake or at the tire-you get lockup. And that means you`ve just lost effective heat transfer and braking power.

Engineers determine the required coefficient of friction for the best braking performance on a particular vehicle. The friction materials selected for brake pads and rotors or brake shoes and drums are designed to give the best cold-temperature and hot-temperature performance. The best materials have a coefficient that stays within narrow limits over a wide range of temperatures. If the selected material increases or decreases its coefficient of friction as temperature changes, the brakes can fade or grab. This illustrates an important reason to use replacement brake parts that are equivalent to OE specifications: so braking performance will be up to the system design requirements.

Three factors affect the coefficient of friction in a brake system, and these involve some important service operations on your part:

The surface finish of both friction surfaces.


The material-the metal of the rotors and drums and the friction material of the pad and shoe linings.

Finish In Style

Carmakers almost universally recommend against machining the surfaces of brand-new rotors and drums or refinishing rotors unless they`re worn or scored beyond certain limits. All carmakers do, however, specify definite surface finish requirements for rotors and drums.

Because contact between brake drums and shoe linings is linear, surface finish for a brake drum is not as critical as it is for rotors. The finish is not unimportant, however. That`s why carmakers and parts suppliers tell you to make the final refinishing cut on a drum at a shallow depth and slow feed rate to ensure a uniform finish, free of grooves and spirals. 3- 4- 5-

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